RABSEL 2023-09-06T05:38:35+00:00 Editor- in-Chief Open Journal Systems <p>The CERD Educational Journal is published twice a year in Spring (May) and Autumn (November) by the Centre for Educational Research and Development, Paro College of Education, Royal University of Bhutan. The Journal welcomes contributors which promote the exchange of ideas and rational discourse between practicing educators, researchers, planners, administrators, educational thinkers and practitioners, learners and policy makers from Bhutan and abroad. To this end the Journal publishes articles on empirical and theoretical studies, research reports, commentaries and scholarly reviews that attempt a systematic analysis or synthesis of educational processes and systems from different viewpoints and approaches.</p> མཐོ་རིམ་སོབ་གྲྭའི་སོབ་ཕྲུག་ཚུ་ལུ་ གཡུས་ཀྱི་ངག་གཤིས་ལས་བརྟེན་ཏེ་ རོང་ཁའི་རྗོད་སྒྲ་ལུ་ དཀའ་ངལ་གྱི་ཁྱད་པར་ འཚོལ་ཞིབ། 2023-09-06T04:58:58+00:00 Samten Tharchen <p>ད་ལོ་ཚུན་ཚོད་ འབྲུག་རྒྱལ་ཁབ་ཀྱི་རོང་ཁག་དང་ ལུང་ཕོགས་ཁག་ལས་ཕར་ གཡུས་སྐད་མ་འདྲཝ་ ཤར་ཕོགསཔ་ ལོ་མཚམས་ ཁེངས་ཁ་ཟེར་ ལེ་ཤ་ར་སབ་སོལ་ཡོད་པའི་ངག་གཤིས་ཚུ་ལས་ རྒྱལ་ཡོངས་ཀྱི་ཁ་སྐད་རོང་ཁ་འདི་ སབ་པའི་སྐབས་ལུ་ རྗོད་སྒྲ་མ་དགཔ་ ག་དེ་སྦེ་ར་འབྱུང་དོ་ཡོདཔ་ཨིན་ན་ ཞིབ་འཚོལ་གྱི་ཐོག་ལས་ ཡིག་ཐོག་ལུ་བཀོད་བཀོདཔ་མི་འདུག། དེ་འབདཝ་ལས་ གཡུས་སྐད་སོ་སོ་ལུ་བརྟེན་ཏེ་ རོང་ཁའི་གསལ་བྱེད་དང་མགོ་འདོགས། སྔོན་འཇུག་ཡོདཔ་དང་མེད་པའི་མིང་ཚིག། རྗེས་འཇུག་ཞུགས་ཡོད་པའི་མིང་ཚིག་དང་ དམིགས་བསལ་རོང་ཁའི་རྗོད་སྒྲ་སོ་སོ་ཡོད་པའི་མིང་ཚིག་ཚུའི་རྗོད་སྒྲ་མ་དགཔ་ ག་དེ་སྦེ་ར་ཡོད་ག་ ཁ་གསལ་སྦེ་ཧ་གོ་ཚུགས་ནིའི་དོན་ལས་ མཐོ་རིམ་སོབ་གྲྭའི་སོབ་ཕྲུག་ཚུ་ལུ་ གཡུས་ཀྱི་ངག་གཤིས་ལས་བརྟེན་ཏེ་ རོང་ཁའི་རྗོད་སྒྲ་ལུ་ དཀའ་ངལ་གྱི་ཁྱད་པར་ འཚོལ་ཞིབ་ཟེར་བའི་ དོན་ཚན་ཐོག་ལུ་ གཡུས་སྐད་ཁག་མ་འདྲཝ་བརྒྱད་ལས་ བཅའ་མར་གཏོགས་མི་སོབ་ཕྲུག་ ཕོ་མོ་ཡོངས་བསོམས་ ༨༠ ལུ་ ཁུངས་བཙན་ཐབས་ལམ་ ལ་རོག་དང་ཡིག་ཆ་དབྱེ་དཔྱད་གཉིས་ ལག་ལེན་འཐབ་སྟེ་ ཞིབ་འཚོལ་འབད་བའི་སྐབས་ལུ་ སྤྱིར་བཏང་ སོབ་ཕྲུག་གེ་ར་ལུ་ཁྱབ་མཉམ་སྦེ་ ཡོད་པའི་རྗོད་སྒྲའི་དཀའ་ཅིག་དང་། དམིགས་བསལ་ གཡུས་སྐད་སོ་སོ་སབ་མི་ལུ་ཡོད་པའི་རྗོད་སྒྲའི་དཀའ་ངལ་ཅིག་སྦེ་ དཀའ་ངལ་ཁག་གཉིས་ཡོདཔ་སྦེ་ ཐོན་ཏེ་ཡོད་མི་ཚུ་ ཞིབ་འཚོལ་སྙན་འདི་ནང་ལུ་ ཁ་གསལ་སྦེ་བཀོད་དེ་ཡོདཔ་ཨིན།</p> 2023-09-06T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Enabling environment and support as determinant of quality in ECCD centres in Bhutan: An analysis of the findings of quality monitoring of ECCD centres in Bhutan 2023-09-06T05:28:57+00:00 Karma Gayleg <p>Quality in Early Childhood Care and Development (ECCD) centres is central to the effectiveness of programmes they provide but it is not limited to what early educators do with children on a daily basis emphasize that quality in early childhood education encompasses such facets as how engaging and safe the centre is, if there is a range of strategies and activities employed to make learning experiences meaningful, whether families and communities engage in the educational process, and if there is a systemic support from the larger community for the effective functioning of the centre. Recognizing the centrality of a holistic definition of early childhood education, the design of centres in Bhutan is founded on internationally accepted concepts and approaches that integrate critical aspects of quality learning environment. The Bhutan Quality Framework, with four specific domains and 29 indicators, define quality in terms of not just focusing on learning activities and strategies, but also encompassing child safety and well-being, quality of interaction and communication, and family and community involvement.<br>This paper is essentially a report on the state of ECCD centres across the country, generated on the basis of assessment carried out using the quality monitoring tool for ECCD centres. The paper highlights the status of ECCD centres in terms of quality of learning in general and analyzes the levels of attainment in each of the four domains of quality. The paper further specifies the state of quality in ECCD centres by districts and types of centres to illustrate their strengths and weaknesses in varying situations and environments. The paper analyses the key findings of the survey and provides a number of recommendations that could contribute to heightening quality of ECCD programmes by addressing shortfalls in the different aspects of quality in ECCD centres.</p> 2023-09-06T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Impact of Teaching Environmental Science (ES) On the Knowledge and Attitude Of Bhutanese Higher Secondary Students Towards the Environment 2023-09-06T05:32:12+00:00 Kinzang Tshewang <p>Providing individuals with environmental awareness from a young age is important for a liveable and sustainable world. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of teaching Environmental Science (ES) to classes IX-XII students. A convergent mixed method design guided by the pragmatism worldview was adopted for the study. Quantitative data were gathered from 130 participants and qualitative data from 5 students and 5 teachers from a higher secondary school. A descriptive and inferential statistics were used for quantitative data and the qualitative data were analysed through identification of themes. The results showed that students had a high degree of understanding and a positive attitude in environmental science and environment. Additionally, it was noted that there is little to no correlation between their knowledge and attitude about the environment. Thus, it was determined that students, particularly those in high schools, are being encouraged to develop their environmental literacy in order to promote the study of Environmental Science. Therefore, more efforts need be made to encourage ES at all levels of the schools to ensure effective implementation of the curriculum in the nation's sustainable development goals.</p> 2023-09-06T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Impacts of Facebook on Reading Habits of Higher Secondary Students: Stakeholders’ Perspectives 2023-09-06T05:35:16+00:00 Tshering Wangchuk <p>Facebook is the most popular network site among young Bhutanese people. Students spend a substantial amount of time checking Facebook and chatting with friends, which could be detrimental to their reading habits. The aim of this study was to investigate the impacts of Facebook on the reading habits of a higher secondary school students in Bhutan. A mixed method, specifically a convergent design, was adopted for the study, and it was guided by the Pragmatism worldview. Quantitative data were gathered from 274 participants and qualitative data were collected from 10 interviewees and one focus group discussion. Participants included teachers, parents, and students from a higher secondary school in Thimphu Thromde. A descriptive and inferential statistical following thematic analysis was used for quantitative data and the qualitative data were analyzed along the same themes. The findings of the study revealed that use of Facebook positively affected students’ reading habits. Students developed positive attitudes towards reading, after they were exposed to inspiring and interesting articles. However, the study also highlighted the negative impacts of Facebook on students’ reading habits. Further, the study revealed that students have become complacent in reading owing to Facebook activities. The findings of the study may help different stakeholders understand the importance of creating awareness about media literacy to enable students to choose authentic reading materials on Facebook. This study recommends the Ministry of Education to develop policy and provide media literacy education to students to ensure they consume media information judiciously.<br><br></p> 2023-09-06T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023